Even in sayings, ‘ Water is life. ‘Human life cannot be imagined on Earth without water. Human beings are engaged in an exercise to find water from the moon to the surface of Mars, so that the possibilities of life can be explored there, but do we understand the real value of water that we live on Earth?
As per census 011, the national sanitation coverage is 46.9 per cent, while in rural areas it averages only 30.7 per cent. Still, 622 million people in the country, the national average of 53.1 per cent, defecate in the open. These figures cover not only rural but also urban areas. This is a significant cause of water pollution. However, efforts are being made to address this problem under Swachhta Abhiyan on behalf of the Government. It is also necessary to purify water because it affects nutrients such as vitamins, minerals and glucose throughout the body. How will the body be healthy if the body does not get clean water?
Yes, unclean water invites skin diseases. If the data is to be believed, there are about 2100 toxic substances in drinking water. It is better to purify it thoroughly before using water because safety is cautious.
According to a health report, every eight seconds, a child dies of water borne diseases. Every year, more than 50 lakh people become untimely in the age of unsafe drinking water, unclean domestic environment and diseases associated with improper disposal of excreta. Nearly a billion people around the world are not yet getting clean water, and more than two billion people do not have an adequate facility of sewage disposal. In such a situation, the pure drinking water crisis is also a challenge. To deal with this challenge, everyone has to participate at their level.
Quality Of Drinking Water
When we talk about the quality of drinking water, it is divided into two parts: one chemical, physical and the other microbiology. In chemical and physical parameters, heavy metals are to detect organic compounds and remove solid matter (TSS) and turbidity, so in microbiology, coliform bacteria, E. coli and specific pathogenic species of bacteria eliminate viruses and proto zone parasites. Chemically, the amount of nitrate, nitrite and arsenic, if exceeded the stipulated time frame, adversely affects health. Similar toxic substances also affect health by reaching our body through water.
The significant substances in these toxic substances are cadmium, lead, mercury, nickel, silver, arsenic, etc. The excess of iron, manganese, calcium, barium, chromium, copper, uranium, boron as well as nitrate, sulphate, borate, carbonate, etc., in water adversely affects human health.
Excess of magnesium and sulphate in water irritates the intestines. Excess of nitrate becomes a disease called methemoglobinemia in children. While methemoglobinemia enters the intestines and produces stomach cancer by converting nitrosamine into nitrosamine, the florin leads to fluorosis. Similarly, the pesticides and fertilizers used in the agriculture sector pollute our water sources.
Drinking Water Standards
According to WHO, drinking water should be clean, soft, flavoured and odourless. The pH value is between 7 and 8.5.
- Harmful substances present in water: mercury, copper, lead, cadmium, barium, nitrides, fluorides and sulphides.
- Valid level of arsenic level in water: Bureau of Indian Standards has considered up to 0.05 mg per litre suitable for human life, while WHO has considered the presence of a maximum of 0.01 mg of arsenic per litre of drinking water as a safe standard to an extent.
- Danger from arsenic: When arsenic content in water is dangerous, incurable diseases such as cancer, liver fibrosis, hyperpigmentation occur. According to a parliamentary committee report, more than one lakh people died due to arsenic-rich groundwater in just the last decade.
Primary Measures To Purify Water
Treatment of water in a domestic manner: To destroy the bacteria in water, add 2 chlorine tablets (500 mg) in 15 litres or 3 grams of bleaching powder in every 1000 litres of water and use it half an hour later.
1. RO System
The RO system has also been instrumental in drinking water sanitation under the development of technology. The risk of bacteria in clean water by the RO system is very low. It is a high-level way of cleaning drinking water. The RO system 220 to 240 ppm water clean and bring it up to 25 ppm. It frees water from dirt, dust, bacteria, etc., making it pure and sweet.
2. UV radiation systems
UV radiation systems clutter the DNA of viruses and bacteria present in water. Also, harmful bacteria die. UV purifiers come in three-four purification phases with a second filter, pre-filter process and activated carbon cartilage. It excludes moss, organic particles, soluble solids, bacteria, viruses and heavy elements from water.
3. Boiling water
There are now plenty of ways to make water clean and potable, but the oldest way to clean water is to boil it. Millions of people adopt this traditional method around the world. To make the water completely clean and disinfected, it should be boiled for at least 20 minutes and kept in a clean container with a narrow mouth so that it does not get any dirt. Boiled water is considered to be the best.